Agreement International Law

32 The negotiation of multilateral treaties is often not initiated by States, but by international organisations such as the United Nations, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), the ILO or the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). Many international contracts have been prepared by the ILC (such as the VCLT). 19 There are groups of agreements concluded by subjects of international law but covered by national law, such as the accession to property of a State. Another group is that of agreements between states and a foreign natural or legal person under private law (contracts between states and foreign private rights), such as. B concession contracts, the nature of which is not entirely clear. Some provisions of the VCSS-T also distinguish between multilateral and bilateral agreements, and there are also some specific rules concerning treaties that constitute international organizations and treaties adopted within international organizations. Article 43(1)(b) of the VCLT provides that `ratification`, `acceptance`, `approval` and `accession` each mean what is known as the international act by which a State determines at international level its consent to attachment to a treaty`. In the case of ratification, it should be borne in mind that this is not the process of internal ratification (in States with democratic constitutions, usually by the law of the legislature), but an international act of the State, usually by signature by the Head of State or Government or by a Minister of Foreign Affairs. a document in the form of an act of ratification. The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties defines a `treaty` as `an international instrument concluded in writing between States and subject to international law, whether contained in a single act or in two or more interconnected acts and irrespective of its particular name` (Article 2(1)(a) . . .

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