The agreement is a contract that can be implemented under applicable legislation, which is often stipulated in the agreement. As a payment for the loan, the parties negotiate a tax that is shown as an annualized percentage of the value of the borrowed securities. If the agreed form of guarantee is in cash, the tax can be listed as a “short discount,” meaning the lender earns all interest on cash guarantees and “inserts” an agreed interest rate on the borrower. Major securities lenders include investment funds, insurance, retirement plans, exchange-traded funds and other large investment portfolios.  For financing, the lending of securities or shares refers to the granting of securities by one party to another. The loan of securities is the act of lending to an investor or an investment company. The loan of securities is conditional on the borrower setting up guarantees, whether cash, guarantees or letters recommended. When a security is lent, the title and ownership are also transferred to the borrower. The main reason for borrowing a security is the coverage of a short position.
Because you have an obligation to provide security, you must borrow it. At the end of the agreement, you must return an equivalent guarantee to the lender. The equivalent means fungible in this context, i.e. the securities must be totally interchangeable. Compare that to the loan of a 10 euro note. They don`t expect exactly the same rating as any 10 euro note. Currently, these institutional credit line programs are only available through long-standing relationships with institutional brokers and their banking arms and generally face high minimum requirements for custodians. However, there are a number of securities-based credit line programs that are currently available in the general market that provide access to interest rates and competitive conditions without these preferences or customer relationships. (Searching for terms such as “wholesale stock loans” or “no stock transfer credits” usually results in a list of such suppliers.) Securities lending has been ongoing for more than 40 years. The first formal participation operations took place in the early 1960s in the City of London, but it began as an industry in the early 1980s.
The practice has moved from a back office to a common investment practice that improves the returns of large financial institutions. Until early 2009, securities lending was only a revenue market, which made it difficult to accurately estimate the size of this sector. According to the inter-professional organization ISLA, the balance of loans in 2007 exceeded $1 trillion worldwide.  In July 2015, the value was $1,72 trillion (with a total of $13.22 billion in loans), a level similar to that of the 2008 financial crisis.  In investment banking, the term “loan of securities” is also used to describe a service offered to large investors that may allow the investment bank to lend its shares to others. This often happens for investors of all sizes who have mortgaged their shares to borrow money to buy more shares, but large investors like pension funds often choose to do so to their non-mortgaged shares because they receive interest. In such agreements, the investor continues to receive dividends as usual, the only thing he can usually not do is choose his shares.