The 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 21), held in Paris in 2015, ended with the adoption of the decision and the Paris Agreement. The agreement came into force in November 2016 and will apply from 2020. Its goal is to keep the global temperature rise well below 2 degrees Celsius. The goal is to achieve this by increasing the capacity to adapt to the negative effects of climate change and by promoting resilience to climate change and the development of low-carbon co2. To achieve the agreed objectives, the Paris Agreement establishes a strengthened transparency framework to promote mutual trust and promote effective implementation of the agreement, improve clarity and facilitate monitoring of progress. The level of the NDC set by each country will determine the objectives of that country. However, the “contributions” themselves are not binding under international law because of the lack of specificity, normative nature or language necessary to establish binding standards.  In addition, there will be no mechanism to compel a country to set a target in its NDC on a specified date and not for an application if a defined target is not achieved in an NDC.   There will be only a “Name and Shame” system  or as UN Deputy Secretary General for Climate Change, J. Pésztor, CBS News (US), a “Name and Encouragement” plan.  Since the agreement has no consequences if countries do not live up to their commitments, such a consensus is fragile.
A cattle of nations withdrawing from the agreement could trigger the withdrawal of other governments and lead to the total collapse of the agreement.  The authors of the agreement have built a time line for the withdrawal that President Trump must follow – which prevents him from irreparably harming our climate. It is rare that there is a consensus among almost all nations on a single subject. But with the Paris agreement, world leaders agreed that climate change was driven by human behaviour, that it was a threat to the environment and to humanity as a whole, and that global action was needed to stop it. In addition, a clear framework has been put in place for all countries to make commitments to reduce emissions and strengthen these measures over time. Here are some main reasons why the agreement is so important: the Paris Agreement has a bottom-up structure, unlike most international environmental treaties that are “top down”, characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives and which must be implemented by states.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legal commitment targets, the Paris Agreement, which focuses on consensual training, allows for voluntary and national objectives.  Specific climate targets are therefore politically promoted and not legally binding. Only the processes governing reporting and revision of these objectives are imposed by international law.